Psychological Agreement In Perspective Of Educational Institute

James is the father of psychology in America, but he also contributed to educational psychology. In his famous talks series Talks to Teachers on Psychology, published in 1899, James defined education as “the organization of behavioral habits and acquired behavioral tendencies.” [15] He says that teachers should “train the student in behavior”[15] so that he integrates into the social and physical world. Teachers should also recognize the importance of habit and instinct. You should present information that is clear and interesting and that relates this new information and materials to things that the student is already aware of. [15] It also addresses important issues such as attention, memory, and the association of ideas. Applied behavioral analysis, a research-based science that uses behavioral principles of operational conditioning, is effective in a number of educational environments. [19] For example, teachers can change student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow class rules with praise, stars, or tokens that can be exchanged for different items. [20] [21] Despite the proven effectiveness of rewards in behavior change, their use in training proponents of self-determination theory has been criticized, arguing that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. There is evidence that tangible rewards reduce intrinsic motivation in certain situations, for example. B if the student already has a high level of intrinsic motivation to perform the target behavior. [22] However, results that have negative effects are offset by evidence that in other situations, for example.B.

if rewards are given to achieve a progressively increasing level of performance, the rewards improve intrinsic motivation. [23] [24] Many effective treatments are based on the principles of applied behavioral analysis, including pivotal response therapy used to treat autism spectrum disorders. Pedagogical psychology is a fairly new and expanding field of study. Although it may date back to the time of Plato and Aristotle, pedagogical psychology has not been considered a specific practice. It was not known that day-to-day teaching and learning, where individuals had to think about individual differences, assessment, development, the nature of a subject being taught, problem solving, and learning transfer, was the beginning of the field of pedagogical psychology. . . .

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